Senin, 13 Februari 2023

Ribosome Structure Overview

Ribosomes are complex molecular machines found in all living cells, responsible for synthesizing proteins from amino acids. They consist of two subunits, a larger one (the 60S subunit) and a smaller one (the 40S subunit). The subunits are composed of both protein and RNA components, with the RNA component known as ribosomal RNA (rRNA).


The 60S subunit contains the following components:

  • 5S rRNA
  • 28S rRNA
  • 5.8S rRNA
  • 39 ribosomal proteins

The 40S subunit contains the following components:

  • 18S rRNA
  • 33 ribosomal proteins

Together, the two subunits form a structure with a central channel that is used to translate messenger RNA (mRNA) into a protein. The ribosome uses tRNA (transfer RNA) molecules to bring amino acids to the ribosome, where they are linked together to form a protein. The ribosome moves along the mRNA, adding one amino acid at a time to the growing protein chain. The ribosome also recognizes start and stop codons on the mRNA to initiate and terminate protein synthesis.

Overall, the ribosome is a highly complex and dynamic molecular machine, essential for the synthesis of all proteins in a cell.

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