Senin, 30 Januari 2023

Nucleus: Structure, Function, Formation, and Degradation

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It acts as the control center of the cell, containing genetic material (DNA) in the form of chromosomes, and directing the cell's activities by regulating gene expression. The nucleus is responsible for cell growth, division, and communication with other cells.

The discovery of the nucleus is credited to Ernest Rutherford, a New Zealand-born physicist who worked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1911, he performed experiments in which he bombarded a thin sheet of gold foil with alpha particles and observed their scattering patterns, which led him to propose the existence of a dense, positively charged nucleus at the center of an atom.

cell nucleus
Nucleus structure


The structure of the nucleus is complex and dynamic, but it can be broadly described as consisting of:

  1. Nucleoplasm: a semi-fluid substance that makes up the majority of the nucleus and contains DNA, RNA, and other organic molecules.
  2. Chromosomes: long, coiled DNA molecules that carry genetic information. In a typical human cell, there are 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs.
  3. Nuclear envelope: a double-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus and separates its contents from the rest of the cell.
  4. Nuclear pores: openings in the nuclear envelope that allow for the regulated exchange of materials between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
  5. Nucleolus: a non-membrane-bound region of the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is produced and assembled with proteins to form ribosomes.

These components work together to regulate gene expression and maintain the integrity of the cell's genetic information.


The main functions of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells include:

  1. Gene regulation: the nucleus controls gene expression by determining which genes are active or inactive.
  2. Chromosome replication and segregation: the nucleus is responsible for copying and distributing chromosomes to daughter cells during cell division.
  3. RNA synthesis and processing: the nucleus synthesizes RNA molecules, which are then transported out of the nucleus and used for various cellular functions.
  4. Storage and protection of genetic information: the nucleus houses the cell's DNA and protects it from damage.
  5. Control of cell growth and division: the nucleus plays a role in regulating the cell cycle and ensuring proper division and growth of the cell.

These functions are essential for maintaining the stability and integrity of the cell and its genetic information, and for allowing the cell to carry out its various functions and activities.

Largest and Smallest

The largest cell nucleus is found in ostrich eggs, which can measure up to 170 mm in diameter. This is much larger than the nuclei of most other cells, which are typically only a few micrometers in size. The large size of the ostrich egg nucleus is necessary to support the extensive genetic material required for development of the embryo. However, despite its size, the nucleus of an ostrich egg functions similarly to that of smaller cells, regulating gene expression and controlling cell growth and division.

ostrich egg
An Ostrich egg measuring 170 mm x 130 mm is the largest single cell

The smallest cell nucleus is not well defined, but some of the smallest known nuclei are found in bacteria and other single-celled organisms. These nuclei are often much smaller than the nuclei of eukaryotic cells and can range in size from a few hundred nanometers to a few micrometers in diameter. The exact size of a cell's nucleus depends on many factors, including the size and complexity of the organism and the specific function of the cell. However, regardless of size, all cell nuclei serve a similar role in regulating gene expression and controlling the growth and division of cells.

Laboratory Techniques

There are several laboratory techniques that can be used to determine the presence and location of a cell nucleus, including:

  1. Microscopy: Light microscopy or electron microscopy can be used to visualize the structure of a cell and locate its nucleus. This technique involves the use of a microscope to magnify the image of the cell and its components.
  2. Staining: Nuclei can be stained with dyes such as Hoechst or DAPI, which will selectively bind to DNA and cause the nucleus to fluoresce under UV light. This can make the nucleus easily visible and distinguishable from other cellular components.
  3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS): FACS is a technique used to sort and analyze individual cells based on their fluorescence. This method can be used to identify cells that have been labeled with a fluorescence-tagged antibody specific for a nucleic acid-binding protein.
  4. Immunofluorescence: This technique involves the use of antibodies to detect specific proteins within a cell, including those associated with the nucleus. Antibodies can be labeled with a fluorescent marker, making it possible to visualize the location of the nucleus and its associated proteins.

These techniques are widely used in biological and medical research to study the structure and function of cells and their nuclei.


Cell nucleus formation is the process by which a new nucleus is assembled in a cell during cell division or in response to environmental cues.

In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus formation process starts with the replication of the DNA in the cell and the condensation of the replicated chromosomes into tightly packed structures. The chromosomes then begin to move towards the center of the cell, where the nuclear envelope, which is composed of two lipid bilayer membranes, begins to reassemble around the chromosomes.

As the nuclear envelope reforms, it encloses the chromosomes and separates the genetic material from the cytoplasm, creating a protected compartment for the DNA. Specialized proteins and enzymes are involved in the process of reassembling the nuclear envelope and regulating the transport of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

The formation of the nucleus is a complex and tightly regulated process that is essential for the proper functioning and division of cells. Disruptions to this process can result in the formation of abnormal nuclei or the failure of cells to divide properly, leading to various genetic and chromosomal abnormalities and diseases.


Cell nucleus degradation, also known as nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), refers to the process by which the nuclear envelope, which surrounds and protects the genetic material in the cell nucleus, breaks down during cell division.

NEBD is a critical step in cell division and is regulated by specific proteins and enzymes that work together to coordinate the breakdown and reformation of the nuclear envelope. During NEBD, the nuclear lamina, a meshwork of intermediate filaments that provides structural support to the nucleus, is disassembled, and the nuclear envelope is disrupted, allowing the chromosomes to separate and be distributed to the daughter cells.

There are several stages to the process of cell nucleus degradation, including chromatin condensation, formation of the mitotic spindle, and separation of the chromosomes. These processes are tightly regulated and must be completed in a specific order to ensure that the genetic material is accurately divided and passed on to the daughter cells.

Malfunction or failure of the cell nucleus degradation process can result in various genetic and chromosomal abnormalities, leading to diseases such as cancer and birth defects.

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